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2017年5月14日 (日)

M.Burke,A.Kumičová,A.Mangen,& T.Schilhab(2016).「Empathy at the Confluence of Neuroscience and Empirical Literary Studies」を読む(『Scientific Study of Literature』)

文学の経験的研究におけるempathy関連の研究をレビューした論文になります。哲学者による理論的な研究のレビューからスタートし、現在の文学理論、文学の経験的研究、心理学・神経科学、でのempathyの研究成果が整理されています。

Burke, M., Kumičová, A., Mangen, A., & Schilhab, T. (2016). Empathy at the confluence of neuroscience and empirical literary studies. Scientific Study of Literature, 6 (1), 6-41.

概要

様々な研究が紹介されていますが、論文全体を通して、"the capacity to share the feelings of others"(または"emotional empathy")(ともにp. 21)と、"the capacity to represent others' intentions and beliefs"(または"Theory of Mind" "cognitive empathy")(いずれもp. 21)の2つの立場があることが大きく取り上げられていたように思います。

以下、個々の研究に関する紹介で、個人的に面白く感じたものを挙げておきます。

  1. Keen (2007) の研究:"Keen suggests that novels are possibly distincive in their capacity to elicit empathy by virtue of being fictitious (Keen, 2007, p. 4), rather than exclusively or primarily for their aesthetic merit. According to Keen, the reader's awareness of reading a piece of fiction, devoid of real-world demands for immediate action on behalf of the wronged, is precisely what could make novels a particluarly efficient arena for emotional training. However, Keen is reluctant to endorse strong generalizations about the long-term moral consequences of such training. (pp. 12-13)
  2. Caracciolo (2014) の研究:"On the cline from word to paragraph level, the typical features of consciousness-focused narration range from the use of certain pronouns and verbs of experiencing, through expressive punctuation and experiential metaphors, to internalize focalization (Caracciolo, 2014b, pp. 104-109, 125-129)" (p. 14)
  3. 同じくCaracciolo (2014) の研究:"it is possible to enact a character's bodily sensations while consciously retaining third-person distance from the character's feelings, beliefs, or attitudes. At the later point in the same narrative and reading session, the reverse may become true." (pp. 13-14) / "first-person emphatic enactment of one particular emotion or sensation does not preclude a third-person, more distanced perspective on other aspects of a story" (p. 15)
  4. Koopman (2015) の研究:"maybe it was the excessive foregrounded features that are often present in literary fictive texts that affect the quality of the emotions that are generated, something that is not an issue in the often less-foregrounded fluidity of real-life narrative texts." (p. 17) ←Jacobsらとは異なる見解ですね。
  5. Mangen & Kuiken (2014) の研究 :"the booklet readers were more likely to report a close association between transportation and empathy. This was not the case with the iPad, suggesting that the ergonomics of the reading medium might be of importance for empathy." (pp. 20-21)→さらに、pp. 30-32には、文学作品のe-readingや、紙媒体の読解におけるpage-turningが与える影響を研究する必要性が強く主張されています
  6. 様々な研究成果に基づいたまとめ:"While emtional empathy - to feel what another is feeling - occurs more or less automatically and emerges earlier phylogenetically, cognitive empathy - to think what another is thinking - depends more on ontogenetic and developmental aspects (e.g. Stueber, 2012) and may be specific to humans (Call & Tomasello, 2008; de Waal & Ferrari, 2010)" (pp. 22-23)

文学読解の情意面の研究は、哲学・文学理論・心理学・脳科学といった領域が協力し合う形で、急成長しているようです。

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« M.イヴィッチ(1965/1974).『言語学の流れ』を読む(早田輝洋・井上史雄(訳),みすず書房) | トップページ | 宮脇正孝(2012).「5文型の源流を辿る:C. T. Onions, An Advanced English Syntax (1904) を超えて」を読む(『専修人文論集』) »

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« M.イヴィッチ(1965/1974).『言語学の流れ』を読む(早田輝洋・井上史雄(訳),みすず書房) | トップページ | 宮脇正孝(2012).「5文型の源流を辿る:C. T. Onions, An Advanced English Syntax (1904) を超えて」を読む(『専修人文論集』) »